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User Acceptance Tests Form the Top of the Test Pyramid

User acceptance tests (UAT) are a type of software test carried out by the end users of an application. The aim is to ensure that the software fulfils certain requirements and expectations. The aim is to test the technical requirements as well as the user-friendliness and functionality.

How Do User Acceptance Tests Work?

User acceptance tests are an important step in the development process of an application and take place in the final phase before the software is deployed. The following factors are usually checked in this test phase:

  • Functional requirements: Here, users check whether the software enables the desired functions and processes and fulfils the original requirements for the software.
  • User-friendliness: Users evaluate the usability and design of the application. “Is the user interface intuitive and easy to understand?” is the key question.
  • Workflow requirements: Users test whether the software maps important workflows and fulfils the specific requirements.
  • Migration and compatibility during updates: When updates or changes are made, a check is carried out to ensure that existing data and functions continue to function correctly and that migrations can be carried out smoothly.
  • Scenarios: Different application scenarios are run through to ensure correct functioning.


What Is a Test Pyramid?

A test pyramid is a concept from software development that depicts the hierarchy of different test types in a hierarchical structure. The idea is to establish an efficient strategy for testing software.

A test pyramid typically consists of the following levels:

Unit tests form the basis of the test pyramid and test individual units of an application in isolation from each other.

The middle layer of the test pyramid is occupied by the integration tests. They check the cooperation of components and interfaces to ensure proper interaction. Any problems are thus detected promptly.

System tests represent a further level and test either parts of the system or the system as a whole. The focus here is primarily on the correct integration of all components. They also test whether functional and non-functional requirements are met.

With the User Acceptance Tests, end users ensure that the system not only meets their requirements, but also offers added value.

The test pyramid is based on two dimensions. The horizontal axis represents the number of test cases that are performed for an application. The vertical axis represents the complexity of the tests.

The vertical axis can be interpreted as the complexity of the test cases, the speed of execution or the type of validation.

Why Are UATs at the Top of the Test Pyramid?

User acceptance testing is crucial to identify potential problems or shortcomings – and therefore serves as the final step before the application is deployed. User feedback and evaluation are essential because they ensure that the application is suitable for the intended target group.

User acceptance tests focus on the customer perspective. When developing an application, the main goal is to maximise customer value. This should ensure that the end product meets the needs and requirements of users in practice.

The different perspectives also contribute to a differentiated picture of the software, as the tests provide important feedback on other use cases. Certain aspects may have appeared acceptable to developers in earlier test phases, whereas they are unacceptable to users.


Placing user acceptance tests at the top of the test pyramid emphasises the importance of the individual customer. They represent the highest degree of customer orientation. UATs are crucial for the commercial success of software, as they ensure that the desired customer benefit is fulfilled and added value is offered.

Would you also like to automate your testing? Book a demo and we get to know each other!

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Software Testing Before Launch: 5 Tips for a Smooth Launch Experience

All software must be tested before launch. If this part is omitted, a whole host of bugs and security gaps in the code remain undiscovered.

We at have already been involved in many projects and can confirm this: Problems can always be found before the release. And the more complex your product is, the more bugs there will be (best example: Windows). That’s why testing is a central part of software development. And this part has to be done right.

Here we share with you 5 tips on how to ensure a smooth launch experience with tests.

Tip 1: Test Right from the Start

This tip comes first because it is the most important.

If your software is already “finished” and you want to start testing it quickly before the launch, you have already made a critical mistake. Because testing software is not something that should only be done shortly before the launch. It has to be done right from the start. And on a regular basis.

Software products work in much the same way as buildings: there is a structure. Each building block builds on another. And if the foundation is not built properly, everything that builds on it has to be demolished.

If you find out 2 weeks before the rollout that the entire structure of your code needs to be reorganised, there is always the same consequence: a headache.

Employees have to work overtime, your superiors are stressed, clients are dissatisfied and the company builds up a bad reputation. Early testing prevents this.

Integrate Testing into the Product Roadmap

If you want to plan your testing strategically right from the start, you need to integrate it into the product roadmap. This allows you to determine at which points in the development process which tests are to be carried out.

A major advantage of this approach is also better time planning. One of the most common excuses for not testing is “too little time”. And it’s true that software development is stressful. But if you plan everything from the beginning, you can set realistic deadlines and schedule time for testing.

Also important: The coders should be involved in the creation of the product roadmap. This is because they are good at estimating how long certain tasks and processes will take.

And if you have particularly little time for testing, you can try automated testing as a service (TaaS).

Tip 2: Carry Out the 4 Most Important Tests

These 4 tests must never be omitted before the rollout:

  • Unit tests
  • Integration tests
  • End-to-End tests
  • Acceptance tests

They test different areas and complement each other. Once your software has passed these tests, you can have much more confidence and trust in the product. But what are these tests all about?

Unit Tests – Check Isolated Code Sections

Unit tests require you to scrutinise and check small sections of code (units). This type of test must be carried out particularly early on so that errors in one unit do not affect other units.

Integration Tests – Checking Harmony between Units

With complex software, different units have to communicate with each other (e.g. front-end and back-end modules).

You use integration tests to check whether these units are in harmony with each other. Because if the interfaces have errors, this usually hinders the flow of data in the system.

End-to-end Tests – Testing the Entire System

End-to-end tests are larger tests that check the behaviour of the entire system from start to finish.

As already mentioned, software consists of various components. And in end-to-end tests, it is not individual parts of the software that are tested, but the entire system. In such tests, the software has to prove itself in real-life scenarios.

Acceptance Tests – Checking the Client’s Needs

The acceptance test always comes at the end. It is not carried out by you, but by the customer or an end user. If the tester has no problems and can navigate the application without help, the test is considered passed.

Tip 3: Put your Software to the Test!

When a carpenter has finished his work, he hammers hard on his table. This is done to test the stability of the table. When testing software development, something similar is done to the finished application. It is called fuzzing.

When fuzzing, the system receives unexpected and invalid input data. An active attempt is made to overload the system. This has the following advantages:

Security Gaps Are Uncovered

If you actively overload your software with fuzzing, you can recognise vulnerabilities based on the system’s reactions. This is important because such vulnerabilities are exploited by attackers.

Resilience Is Tested

If the software crashes during fuzzing, this means that the code does not provide enough stability. You can use such stress tests to find out whether the software is robust enough for the launch.

A crash is often caused by the code being too long and not being kept simple.

Regression Can Be Detected

Regression means that old errors that have already been corrected reappear. Unfortunately, regression often goes unnoticed. But if you carry out fuzzing regularly, you can detect such errors.

Tip 4: Use Flaky Tests

Most developers don’t like flaky tests. Because they are confusing. A flaky test leads to different results under identical circumstances. This is why these tests are usually deleted.

But you can actually use flaky tests to your advantage. If you find out what causes the test to be “flaky”, you can get to the bottom of problems that other tests don’t reveal.

Tip 5: Write Test Reports that Everyone Understands

Automated test reports have become very popular. They save a lot of work. But there is one problem: they are not always reader-friendly and often require a lot of knowledge. There are always participants and decision-makers in the project who do not have a deep technical understanding. In order to make informed decisions, they need to be able to understand the test reports.

For example, there could be a bug that cannot be fixed before the launch. In such cases, the decision-makers need to understand the bug. They have to decide whether the launch has to be postponed or whether the software can be released despite the bug. And this is only possible if the test report is clear and comprehensible. Even if the reader does not have a great deal of technical understanding.

The good news: There are also automated test reports that are easy to understand. At, we produce image-based test reports. They are easily understood by everyone involved. Contact us if you want to know more about this.

#softwareengineering #programming #softwaredesign #datamining

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The Test Pyramid: Components of an Effective Test Strategy

In addition to the planning and implementation of programming work, the development of new software also includes successful integration. Comprehensive testing is therefore a key factor in ensuring the introduction of a new system.

These tests uncover problems and errors that need to be rectified before delivery to the customer. The various tests build on each other. In this article, we introduce you to the so-called test pyramid and its meaning.

Comprehensive Tests – From the Base to the Top

Comprehensive testing of newly developed software is as important as the programming itself. Comprehensive testing of the system is therefore central and important before the product is launched at the customer. It serves as quality assurance. Testing makes it possible to recognise and rectify problems before the software reaches the end user. Testing should therefore take place from as many perspectives as possible. This is the only way to ensure that the customer can use the finished end product without any problems.

There are basically four different test procedures that should be carried out before finalising new software: Unit test, integration test, system test and acceptance test. The four different tests systematically build on each other and should therefore all be carried out.

In this context, we also speak of the test pyramid. The unit or component test forms the basis. The integration test builds on this at the second level, followed by the system test. The top of the pyramid is the acceptance test. Software that has made it this far should generally only have minor errors. The acceptance test is the last step before the customer, so to speak.

In the following, we will take a closer look at the test pyramid and explain what is tested on the four levels and why these tests are so important.

Basics First – The Unit Test

The unit test has different names, whether unit, component or module test, the purpose remains the same. In the test process, the unit test is used to test the smallest units of software code. These units are considered independently of each other. Only if the smallest parts are functional can the entire software system run without errors.

Unit tests form the basis of the test pyramid, which is obviously due to the fact that this is about the many individual codes that together form the software. The aim of analysing and checking is to find errors in these smallest units at an early stage. The testing process can be divided into four phases.

  • Planning: In order to carry out a test procedure efficiently, the process should be planned in advance. This includes, among other things, securing resources and personnel.
  • Test cases: The development and preparation of use cases follows on from planning.
  • Scripting: Creation of the scripts needed to perform the unit test.
  • Unittest: The testing of the individual units naturally comes at the end of the process. The results lead to the optimisation of the software units.

There are different methods for implementing a unit test. Both manual and automated options are available. Manual tests have a greater level of detail, as each individual step is documented. Automated procedures only provide information on the failed units.

Although a unit test cannot usually uncover all errors in the smallest units, this procedure provides early indications of problems. Costs are reduced by optimising the code units identified as faulty. The basis for further tests is also optimally prepared.

Step Two – The Integration Test

In the second step, software testing concentrates on the interaction of several units that were previously checked in the unit test. In the course of a complete test process, the focus widens. After the detailed testing of the individual units, the field of vision is now larger.

Integration tests look at the cooperation between the units, i.e. whether a unit refers to another unit, uses its interface and whether this works smoothly. It is precisely at these interfaces that errors can occur, which a unit test cannot identify due to its focus on the smallest part.

The result of the integration test shows which interfaces between two or more units do not fit together properly. Sources of error can thus be eliminated in a targeted manner.

Step Three – The System Test

The step-by-step check of the interfaces in the integration test is followed by the system test, which again has an expanded focus. As the name suggests, the entire software system is now put to the test. All other systems are now added and analysed as an overall construct. The aim is to clarify whether the software does exactly what it is supposed to do and whether unexpected errors or problems occur when the individual components work together.

Compared to a unit test, system tests require more time, resources and personnel. At this point, the effort required correlates with the complexity of the task. The test combinations are almost infinite. It is therefore important to utilise the resources efficiently. A customised test environment is therefore the be-all and end-all before carrying out the system test.

Once the software has successfully passed the system test and it has been ensured that all requirements have been met, the test process can be finalised.

At the Top – The Acceptance Test

In some cases, the system test is also the final stage of the test pyramid. However, the value of an acceptance test should not be underestimated. Once a software has gone through all the previous steps and the tests and corresponding adjustments have been made, it is worth carrying out a final test to scrutinise the overall construct once again.

The acceptance test is also known as acceptance testing. It is the really final step before the software is delivered to the customer.

This last test is a so-called black box test. The parameters of the test must therefore be defined in advance. The tester therefore determines all the characteristic values that are used to check the input and output data. Depending on who carries out the test, the acceptance test belongs to a different category. There are three different categories.

  • Customer Acceptance Testing: The tester is an external supplier
  • Factory Acceptance Testing: The tester examines the components
  • User Acceptance Testing: The tester is the user

User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

Whether referred to as beta, application or end-user testing, the most important sub-category of acceptance testing is user acceptance testing. Why is it so important? Quite simply, in this process the customer himself checks the software for its handling and usability. Feedback from the customer is some of the most helpful feedback a developer can get.

Ziel einer Software-Programmierung ist es, dem Kunden genau das Produkt zu erstellen, das er sich wünscht. Im UAT testet der Kunde nun die Software auf Herz und Nieren und schau, ob alles so funktioniert, wie es soll. Es steht damit die Benutzerfreundlichkeit und die Akzeptanz seitens der Anwender im Vordergrund.

For programming, the user review provides insight into topics such as Is the software intuitive to use? What problems occur during use? Does the software crash and in which situations does this happen?

If problems and errors occur, the manufacturer has the opportunity to make further adjustments and identify and eliminate the sources of error. In serious cases, the result is more labour-intensive, namely when important applications have been forgotten during programming or the user expresses further wishes when trying out the system.

Support with Testing

The various tests in the test pyramid are essential for bringing a successful product to market. While unit tests are carried out relatively quickly, the complexity and time required increase as the focus of the other tests increases. System tests and, above all, acceptance tests are therefore very time-consuming. In addition, system and acceptance tests are generally not automated and require manpower to carry them out.

In order to ensure the quality of the software, it is therefore advisable to consider support for the time-consuming tests. can help with user acceptance testing. One example clearly shows how the support provided by the experts works:

A customer had been struggling for some time with problems that occurred during his product demos. He was unable to remedy the problem himself and the source of the error could not be found. As the malfunctions were already leaving a bad impression on potential and existing customers, quick help was needed. provided the customer with the test environment, which was used to find the source of the error on the basis of comprehensive, automated tests. What did the customer do with the help of the test environment? It used the test tools to run through different scenarios and simulate the software in these examples. Since then, it has used the test environment for all product demos, as this allows it to ensure quality.

This shows that with, developers and project managers have a strong and competent partner at their side.

Climbing the Pyramid – Taking the Fear Out of IT Tests

Software errors can have a negative impact on the acceptance of the product. System crashes or malfunctions frustrate the user and dampen confidence in the application or the manufacturer. Even if they consume resources and time, extensive tests are therefore an important element in the development process. The test pyramid is a clear way of visualising the structure of the test process.

According to the pyramid, the test procedure should be well planned and prepared in advance. Good preparation ensures that there are no further undesirable delays during the test procedure. Test environments such as those from make test implementation even easier.

If you are looking for a solution to simplify the introduction of new software and support it with high-quality product demos, you should give a try. Rely on thorough testing and convince your customers.

#test_pyramide #technology #strategy #projectmanagement #testpyramide #useracceptance #unittest #systemtest #integrationstest #software #testup

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Best Practices for the Successful Transition from Manual Testing to Automation

The transition from manual testing to automation is crucial in today’s fast-paced software development world. By automating testing processes, organisations can increase efficiency, improve quality and reduce time-to-market. However, there are some challenges to overcome, including careful planning, strategic approaches and collaboration between all team members.

A successful transition requires recognising best practices and implementing appropriate steps. For example, clear objectives should be defined, suitable tools selected and test scripts developed. Regularly reviewing and updating automated tests and training team members are also important aspects of a successful transition. With a well-thought-out approach, a company can ensure that it realises all the benefits of automation and continuously improves its software quality.

1. Thorough Analysis and Planning

The first and most important step for a successful transition to test automation is thorough analysis and planning. This involves understanding the goals, requirements and scope of the automation project. By identifying the appropriate test cases, resources can be utilised effectively. The prioritisation of test cases is based on their importance and the expected ROI (return on investment). Examples of suitable test cases could be regression tests, where a large amount of repetitive tasks can be automated. Performance tests or tests in complex environments can also be automated well. Careful planning lays the foundation for efficient and successful test automation.

Create a detailed time and resource plan for the automation project. Firstly, you should estimate the time required for the actual automation, taking into account specific tasks such as identifying processes that can be automated, developing scripts or testing the automation. Furthermore, it is essential to plan enough time for training team members to ensure that they have the necessary skills to carry out the automation successfully.

The familiarisation with new tools and technologies should also be considered, as these may require additional training. It may make sense to bring in external expertise or offer training to ensure that the team has the necessary knowledge.

2. Selection of the Right Tools

Choosing the right automation tools is crucial to the success of the project. There are a variety of test automation tools on the market, from open source options such as

  • Selenium
  • Appium
  • JUnit

to commercial solutions such as

  • Applitools
  • TestCafe
  • UFT
  • TestComplete
  • UIPath

Choose the tools that best suit the requirements and technologies of your project.

When selecting development and testing tools, copywriters should consider various aspects. Firstly, scalability is important – the selected tool should be able to keep pace with growing requirements. In addition, it should offer broad support for different platforms and technologies to ensure that a wide range of projects can be covered. The maintainability of the tool also plays a role, as it requires regular updates and bug fixes. An active community can help to clarify questions and solve problems. Finally, integration with other development tools is important to ensure a seamless workflow.

3. Gradual Introduction and Pilot Projects

A step-by-step approach is often recommended to make the transition from manual testing to automation a success. Start with a pilot project to familiarise the team with the new tools and methods and gain experience. Select test cases that are relatively easy to automate and offer a high benefit for the project.

After the pilot project has been completed and the results analysed, it is advisable to obtain feedback from the team members. This feedback can provide valuable insights and help to adapt the approach if necessary. If the pilot project is successful, it opens up the possibility of extending automation to other test cases and projects. This allows for more efficient testing and gives the team more time for other important tasks. Examples of possible extensions could be the integration of additional test tools or the automation of other project management processes.

4. Test Data Management

A critical aspect of test automation is test data management. Automated test cases require reliable and consistent test data in order to function correctly. Ensure that test data is managed in a clean and predictable environment.

Using mock data is an effective way to simulate databases and external dependencies in tests. By separating test data from production data, privacy regulations can be adhered to and potential data leaks can be avoided. Let’s imagine a developer is working on an e-commerce website and wants to test different scenarios, such as adding products to the shopping basket or completing an order.

Instead of using real customer data or credit card information, mock data can be generated, such as random names, addresses or credit card numbers. This mock data is realistic enough to perform realistic tests, but anonymised enough to protect user privacy. In addition, the use of mock data allows for greater flexibility in creating specific test cases and scenarios without compromising the actual production environment.

5. Code Quality and Versioning

Automated tests are essentially code, so code quality is critical. Follow best practices for software development, such as modular and well-structured code, clear commenting and consistency in the naming of variables and methods.

Effective version control is crucial for managing the code of automated tests. It enables the team to track changes and undo them if necessary. This not only minimises the risk of errors, but also improves collaboration. An example of a popular version control software is Git, which allows developers to create branches and work on different features or fixes in parallel.

In addition, Git provides features such as merging and rebasing to merge changes into the main code and resolve conflicts. With well-managed version control, the test team can go through faster feedback loops and ensure that all changes are properly documented.

6. Continuous Integration and Continuous Testing

Integrate test automation seamlessly into the CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment) process. Automate the execution of tests when new code changes are submitted. This enables potential problems to be recognised and rectified at an early stage and the quality of the code to be improved.

By automating the deployment and execution of tests in different environments, a copywriter is able to ensure that an application works both consistently and reliably. This makes it possible to identify potential problems or incompatibilities at an early stage and take appropriate countermeasures. For example, it is possible to test whether a website is displayed correctly on different browsers or whether mobile apps run smoothly on different operating systems.

In addition, different network conditions can also be simulated to ensure that the application functions optimally under different connection qualities. Overall, the automation of tests in different environments helps to significantly improve the quality and performance of an application.

7. Continuous Improvement and Training

Test automation is an ongoing process that requires continuous improvement. Gather feedback from team members and stakeholders to identify potential weaknesses and bottlenecks.

Continuous investment in training and development of the team is vital to ensure they always have the latest skills and technology. This enables team members to keep up with constantly evolving requirements and maximise their efficiency. For example, test automation training could be provided to ensure that the team has the necessary knowledge and skills to automate tests effectively.

It is also important to keep up to date with developments in the field of test automation and adapt the strategy and tools accordingly. New tools and techniques such as Continuous Integration or Behaviour Driven Development can help to further optimise the automation process. Overall, a well-trained team helps to ensure that tests can be carried out more efficiently, thereby improving the quality of the software.


The transition from manual testing to automation brings numerous advantages for companies. By using automated tests, they can optimise their software development and shorten the time-to-market. This enables faster delivery of updates and new features to customers. By thoroughly analysing the requirements and scope of testing, companies can ensure that they select the right tools for their test automation. A step-by-step approach is advisable to minimise the risk of errors and ensure a smooth transition. It is also important to integrate test automation into the already established CI/CD process to enable continuous integration and deployment. Examples of suitable tools are Selenium, Appium or JUnit, depending on the specific requirements of the project. The use of frameworks such as Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) can also help to create clear and understandable test scenarios.

Continuous improvement and training of the team is crucial to keep up with the latest technologies and best practices and to ensure efficient test automation. By regularly training the team, they can expand their knowledge of tools such as Selenium or Appium and develop new automation strategies. In addition, best practices such as setting up a continuous integration system or implementing code reviews can help improve the quality of the software. Costs can be reduced by recognising and correcting errors early on in the development process. This not only leads to higher customer satisfaction, as high-quality products are delivered, but also to a motivated team that is constantly developing and growing.

If you do not yet have the necessary expertise in-house to make the switch from manual to automated tests, you can also opt for a Testing-as-a-Service solution. The provider takes over the testing for you. You can find more information about this service at

#innovation #digital #automation #softwareengineering #programming #data

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Automate Tests, Optimize Software

In modern software development, software engineers and chief technology officers (CTOs) face the challenge of delivering high-quality products in the shortest possible time and with limited resources. However, to ensure a software project works, a quality assurance team must manually work through checklists step by step, after each change. A slow, expensive and error-prone process. Test automation, on the other hand, can not only speed up the development process, but also reliably ensure the quality of the software. In the following, you’ll learn how.

7 Reasons for Auto­mated Tests

  • Faster defect detection: A large number of test cases – far more than would ever be possible through manual testing – are performed in a short time. As a result, potential errors are detected early and can be corrected before they develop into costly problems in production.
  • Time savings: Manual tests tie up the development team and require a lot of time and effort. Automated tests run around the clock without human intervention. The development team can thus focus on other critical tasks, resulting in accelerated time to market.
  • Repeatability and consistency: Automated tests deliver consistent results because they are always performed according to the same predefined steps. This ensures that the same test conditions are present each time and that potential errors are reproducible, which facilitates their elimination.
  • Scalability: As a project grows, automated testing can be easily adapted to meet increasing requirements. New features and modules can be quickly integrated and tested without having to redevelop the entire testing strategy.
  • Cost reduction: Early detection and correction of errors through automated tests helps to minimize the costs for subsequent error corrections in the production phase. In the long term, this leads to savings in overall software development spending.
  • Improved code quality: Automated tests encourage writing modular, reusable, and well-tested code. Developers must carefully consider how they design their tests, which has a positive impact on the overall quality of the code.
  • Confidence in changes: Regularly executed automated tests can provide confidence in changes. Developers and CTOs can be confident that new features or updates will not have unwanted side effects on existing functionality.

Common tests that can be automated

In order to take full advantage of test automation, it is important that the various types of automated tests are integrated into the development process from the very beginning. Common tests during software development include:

  • Unit tests, for testing individual code units,- Unit tests, for testing individual code units,
  • Integration tests, for testing the interaction between different code units,- Integration testing, for testing the interaction between different code units,
  • System tests, for testing the entire software,- System testing, for testing the entire software,
  • Regression tests to ensure that changes to the software do not cause new bugs,- Regression testing to ensure that changes to the software do not cause new bugs,
  • and user acceptance tests, in which the functionality of the application is checked from the point of view of the target group.- and user acceptance tests, in which the functionality of the application is checked from the point of view of the target group.


In summary, automated testing leads to faster development, reduced errors, and overall higher code quality, which in turn leads to increased efficiency and competitiveness.

Our automated user acceptance tests alone have saved customers an impressive 40% in testing costs and cut the time-to-market for new features by half. Our test managers analyze customer needs and work with customers to develop tailored test strategies and plans. In this way, we ensure that testing activities meet individual requirements.

#softwareengineering #automation

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A Guide to Auto­mated Testing

Purpose and Advan­tages of the Different Types of Tests

Automated testing represents a procedure in which software tools and scripts are used to automate a testing process. While manual tests involve human input, automated tests automatically execute the test cases and evaluate the results based on predefined criteria.

In this guide we address the following points:

  • Why are different types of tests necessary?
  • The advantages of automated testing
  • Unit tests and their advantages
  • Integration tests and their advantages
  • Functional tests and their advantages
  • Performance tests and their advantages
  • Security tests and their advantages
  • Acceptance tests and their advantages
  • Conclusion

Why Are Different Types of Tests Necessary?

In order to obtain information about the performance, security and quality of a software, different types of tests are necessary. Each type of test focuses on different aspects of the software. Thus, they complement each other and provide a comprehensive result.

Furthermore, the different types of tests reveal different errors. Performing them during the development process enables early error detection and correction, even before the software is released. Later bug fixes can be reduced to a minimum or avoided altogether. This also applies to certain risks, which are detected and eliminated at an early stage by means of different types of tests.

However, the use of different types of tests not only benefits the product itself, but also the developers. Because by using different types of tests, they are able to optimise their established strategies and thus save important time in the development of the software. Furthermore, they have an impact on user satisfaction.

The combination of different test types allows for comprehensive test coverage and creates robust and high-quality software.

The Advantages of Automated Testing

Automated tests have several advantages over manual tests. One of these is efficiency, because automated tests perform complex tasks automatically and process large amounts of data. This not only saves time, but also resources.

In addition, automated tests can be repeated as often as desired without human intervention and scaled to perform a large number of test cases. Sources of error can thus be better identified and checked. Automated tests are also able to simulate error conditions and check the reaction of the tested software. Developers get an overview of weak points and unexpected behaviour.

At the same time, they deliver consistent results because the tests are executed with high precision. The probability of errors is significantly reduced, subjective interpretations are avoided.

After completion of an automated test, detailed reports are generated on the identified errors and test results. This facilitates the follow-up of problems and the cooperation between developers and testers.

Unit Tests and Their Advantages

The so-called unit tests are the most basic form of tests and focus on checking individual code units. They help to ensure the stability of the code, improve maintenance and minimise risks of regressions. Because they can be executed quickly, developers detect and fix errors early. The goal is to ensure correct functionality.

Unit tests offer several advantages:

  • early error detection
  • improved maintainability and extensibility
  • improved readability and understanding of the code

Unit tests are a fundamental type of test and therefore form the basis for other types of tests. They play an important role in ensuring the stability and quality of the code.

Integration Tests and their Advantages

Integration tests are primarily used to check the cooperation of several code units or modules. They test whether the integration of the individual components works smoothly and delivers the expected results. Errors in communication between modules are usually uncovered by this type of test. These include data inconsistencies, interface problems or faulty dependencies.

The test environment should be as close as possible to the actual conditions in order to ensure a realistic check of the integration. The probability of errors in the production environment is also reduced in this way.

The benefits of integration testing include:

  • early error detection
  • ensuring interoperability
  • better fault isolation
  • avoidance of regressions

Integration testing helps improve the overall quality, stability and reliability of an application.

Functional Tests and their Advantages

Functional tests aim to check the requirements of a software for its functionalities. This involves testing whether the desired functions are executed and the expected results are delivered. The tests simulate typical scenarios from the user’s point of view. Functional tests can be carried out on the user interface as well as on the backend level.

There are different types of functional tests:

  • Smoke tests are the first stage of testing and identify obvious errors or problems at an early stage.
  • Regression tests ensure that functions that have already been tested continue to work properly, even after changes have been made to the software.
  • End-to-end tests simulate the user flow and also check that different components or systems work together correctly.
  • Scenario-based tests simulate typical user scenarios. Here, specific actions and inputs are performed and the expected reactions are checked.
  • Data integrity tests check whether data is stored, processed and transmitted correctly. They check the consistency of the data to ensure data integrity.

Functional tests not only ensure the user-friendliness and quality of the software, but also support error detection. They are therefore an essential part of the overall test process and important for the development of a software.

Performance Tests and their Advantages

Performance tests aim to check the performance of a software application under certain conditions and to identify problems related to speed, resource consumption or response time. A performance test measures different aspects. These include, for example, response time, processing speed and load capacity.

The various types of performance tests include:

  • Load tests check the performance of an application under a defined load.
  • Stress tests simulate extreme load conditions that go beyond normal usage scenarios. The purpose is to determine the performance limits of an application.
  • Scaling tests check the application’s ability to handle a growing number of users or load. This ensures that the application is able to handle the additional load and still maintain adequate performance.
  • Throughput tests measure performance in terms of the number of transactions processed simultaneously.
  • Latency tests check that the application responds within the expected time and that response times are acceptable.

Performance tests are primarily suitable for identifying potential bottlenecks in advance. Developers are then able to make any necessary optimizations and improve the performance of the software. At the same time, they ensure that a growing number of users does not cause any performance degradation and that the user has a positive experience.

Performance testing ensures that an application meets performance and scalability requirements under real-world load conditions.

Safety Tests and their Advantages

Security tests are used to identify security vulnerabilities and potential threats in a software application. The goal of these tests is to verify the robustness of the application and maintain the integrity of the data.

These tests focus on various security factors. These include authentication, encryption, input validation, and vulnerability protection. They can be performed both at the application level and at the network level.

Safety tests come in different forms:

  • Vulnerability testing checks the application for known vulnerabilities and weaknesses. Vulnerability testing can be performed manually or using automated security analysis tools.
  • Code analysis tools check the source code of an application for potential security problems. These tools can look for insecure code patterns, missing input validation, or potential attack surfaces.
  • Network security tests verify the security of the network infrastructure on which the application is hosted.
  • Penetration testing attempts to penetrate the application and exploit security vulnerabilities. This can include various techniques such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting, cross-site request forgery or denial of service.
  • Vulnerability testing involves checking the application for known vulnerabilities and weaknesses. Vulnerability testing can be done manually or using automated security analysis tools.
  • Code analysis tools check the source code of an application for potential security problems. These tools can look for insecure code patterns, missing input validation or potential attack surfaces.
  • Network security tests check the security of the network infrastructure on which the application is hosted.

Security testing is required to find vulnerabilities or security holes before they are used by attackers to penetrate systems. Developers improve the entire application with such tests. This includes measures such as data transmission, input validation, and authentication.

In addition, security tests facilitate compliance with security-relevant standards if the application processes personal or other sensitive data. Security testing is therefore an important step in ensuring the security of a software application.

Acceptance Tests and their Advantages

Acceptance tests are usually performed by the end users themselves or by testers acting on behalf of the users. They are therefore also known as user acceptance tests or customer acceptance tests. They help developers determine whether an application meets users’ needs and requirements. In addition, acceptance tests examine functionality, usability, and added value of the application for users.

Depending on the application and the user, acceptance testing comes in different forms:

  • Functional acceptance tests
  • Usability tests evaluate the usability and user experience of the application.
  • Performance acceptance tests verify the performance of the application.
  • Security acceptance tests check the application for possible security holes, vulnerabilities or attack surfaces.

Acceptance tests ensure that the software fulfills its purpose, especially with regard to the users. That is why the inclusion of users in the testing process is also necessary. In addition to the user perspective, inclusion brings another advantage: customers feel that they are taken seriously; the customer relationship is strengthened. They also help to identify errors that play a role for the user and hinder him in his work. Developers can fix problems and improve overall quality.

Acceptance testing is therefore an important step in the overall development process and enables software to meet user requirements.


The aforementioned test types enable comprehensive application development and are therefore of crucial importance for the future of a software.

However, each type of testing performs certain tasks and provides important information about the state of the software. Developers are able to use the different types of tests to improve the quality of the software and deliver a better experience to the user.

Automated testing is an important part of an efficient workflow and should be carefully implemented in every software project.

However, automated tests cannot cover all types of tests. Aspects such as user experience or exploratory testing still require reviews in manual form. Nevertheless, automated tests are a valuable complement to manual tests and are indispensable in software development to improve the overall process.

#softwareengineering #datascience #automation #testing

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Effective Test Automation Strategies for Modern Web Applications


Test automation has become an essential part of modern software development as it allows for the efficient and consistent testing of web-based software. With the increasing complexity of web applications, it is essential to have effective test automation strategies in place to ensure the quality of the software. Although test automation is a powerful tool in software development, but it is not an all-in-one solution. When done improperly, automated tests can consume resources without providing significant value. To maximize the benefits of test automation, a comprehensive testing strategy must be developed. This includes identifying key flows, selecting the appropriate cases for automation, and avoiding common pitfalls. This article provides a guide on the best practices for test automation and how to apply them effectively.

What’s an automation test strategy?

An automation test strategy is a plan for how to use automated testing tools and techniques to determine the quality of software. It outlines the types of tests that will be automated, the tools and frameworks that will be used, and the approach that will be taken to implement and maintain the automated tests. It also defines the scope of the automation effort, including which parts of the application will be tested, and how often the tests will be run. The objective of an automation test strategy is to optimize the testing process by increasing its efficiency and effectiveness, while also minimizing the time and resources required as compared to manual testing.

Types of automated tests

Automated testing and manual testing share similar characteristics in terms of their types and objectives. The key differentiation between the two lies in their execution – while manual tests are executed and evaluated by a human tester, automated tests are executed through a script and the results are analyzed by the automation tool. Understanding the different type of automated tests and when to use them is crucial for developing an effective test automation strategy.

 The major types of automated tests include:

  1. Unit tests: These tests focus on individual units of code, such as functions or methods, and are used to ensure that they are working correctly.
  2. Integration tests: These tests check how different units of code work together, and are used to ensure that the system as a whole is functioning properly.
  3. Functional tests: These tests focus on the functionality of the application, and are used to ensure that the application is working as expected from the user’s perspective.
  4. Performance tests: These tests check how the application performs under different load conditions and are used to identify and resolve performance bottlenecks.
  5. Security tests: These tests check for vulnerabilities and potential security breaches in the application.
  6. Acceptance tests: These tests ensure that the application meets the requirements and expectations of the end-user or customer.

Steps to build an automation testing strategy

An automation testing strategy should be customized to meet the specific requirements of a project. While there is no universal method that applies to all situations, there are steps and recommendations that can be used to develop an effective automation testing strategy.

Step 1: Establish clear goals and objectives

An effective automation testing strategy requires clear and measurable goals, as it is difficult to determine success without them. Once the goals have been established, the following steps should be geared towards achieving them. The goal can be as simple as automating priority test cases for critical flows. Defining the scope of the automation testing in the initial stages also helps to prevent wasted time and resources. Without a clear scope, automated tests may overlap with manual testing or some tests may be overlooked due to confusion over whether they should be automated or tested manually. This can be a significant issue for large QA teams, and it is important to establish a precise scope to avoid such problems.

Step 2: Define requirements

This step emphasizes on the need to collaborate with stakeholders to establish automation priorities, define goals and key performance indicators (KPIs), and document the testing needs. It is important to identify the types of testing required to fulfil these needs which will inform the selection of suitable tools in a later stage.

Step 3: Evaluate Risks

In this step, focus on identifying and prioritizing areas with the highest potential business impact and automate them first. A risk-based approach can assist in this process. By prioritizing correctly, it will enable a logical order for automation, and also allow you to know when to stop automating. For instance, continuing to automate low-priority tests can be costly and may not provide much value.

Step 4: Identify Automation Test Cases

At this stage, the focus should be on determining which specific flows and features of the application need to be automated. Prioritize the areas that have the highest business impact, but also take into consideration the stability and complexity of the flows. Automating test cases that are likely to change frequently in the current or upcoming sprints is usually not cost-effective. If test cases have been previously created, highlight the parts that should be automated based on the established goals, risks, and requirements.

Step 5: Set up test data and environment

Managing the test environment and data is a vital, yet frequently overlooked aspect of an automation testing plan. Compliance with regulations such as GDPR can limit the use of data, making synthetic data a viable option. It’s beneficial to store test data in external files for easier maintenance, as changes to the data should not affect the test code. The test environment should be stable and, if necessary, testing artifacts should be cleaned up after the testing run is completed.

Step 6: Pick the Right Tool and Framework

When it comes to selecting the right tool and framework, it is important to consider the specific needs of the project and team. For example, if the team is more familiar with using Selenium, then it may be a better fit than Appium which is mainly used for mobile automation testing. Additionally, creating a proof of concept (POC) using different tools and frameworks can help in showcasing the best fit for the project. It is important to choose a tool that is flexible, easy to use and can integrate with other tools and technologies.

Step 7: Monitor your Test

Monitoring progress is crucial to understanding the current state of testing and identifying what still needs to be completed. Two effective ways to do this are:

  1. Utilize a test management tool to keep track of the automation status of tests, using statuses such as planned, automated, and outdated.
  2. Create a backlog and monitor progress in a ticket management system to easily assign tasks.

It is important to include this tracking information in the overall testing strategy and make sure all team members are aware of the chosen methods.

Step 8: Reporting

Investigating failed tests and identifying problems is a vital part of the automated process. However, it can often take longer than expected to correct underlying issues. Typically, failed tests are caused by one of four areas: Technical issues with the testing environment, defects within the application, obsolete automation scripts and bugs in the automation scripts. All these underlying issues should be reported to the technical team in charge of them.

Step 9: Establish a maintenance protocol

Test automation is not a one-time event, but a continuous process that requires ongoing attention. To ensure your test suite remains relevant and effective, it is essential to formalize the testing process. The first step is to create a system for updating scripts as necessary, but it’s also important to establish clear priorities and timelines. Keep in mind, every out-of-date test is a potential vulnerability that could make its way into the production environment. By implementing a robust maintenance protocol, you can mitigate this risk and promote the longevity of your test suite.

In addition to these strategies, it is also essential to have a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline in place. This pipeline allows for the automated execution of the test cases and can be integrated with the software development process. This ensures that the application is tested at regular intervals and that any issues are identified and resolved quickly. A CI/CD pipeline like Github actions or Travis CI also allows for the identification of regression issues and the tracking of the test results over time.

Choose the right test automation tool

The ultimate game changer that will help you effectively apply all the strategies discussed above is to choose a best-in-class test automation tool. is a great option in this respect; it is a visual-based no-code test tool that gives you fast results. Aside from this, your organization can now take advantage of seamless User Acceptance Testing (UAT) with Our app allows users (both developers and non-developers) to automate User Acceptance Tests faster than the time it would take to manually test the software. This means that from a timing perspective, the business benefits of automation can begin to be realized on the second automated run. The good news is that we have also created a generic User Acceptance Testing template for your use. Ultimately, it helps cut costs significantly and guarantees that your application satisfies the user’s requirements. Click here to get started with for automated tests.

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Why is it So Hard to Introduce Automated Testing in Your Development Process

Automated testing is all the rage in agile contexts these days. There’s no wonder since it works great for many types of testing and helps QAs execute complex test cases located on various platforms and involve a lot of data. It also benefits organizations in multiple ways, such as increasing the productivity of the test team, enhancing software quality, and reducing the time to market.

However, organizations have to face a lot of challenges when trying to apply automated testing into their development process. The seven most common challenges that make the transformation from manual testing to automation more difficult are the following:

  1. Not having a clear idea of what to automate
  2. Difficulties in picking up the right automation tool
  3. Lack of communication and collaboration within the team
  4. Difficulties in choosing a testing approach
  5. High upfront costs
  6. Not having skilled resources for automation
  7. Understanding the prospects of stakeholders and end-users

So let’s have a closer look at the challenges.

1. Not Having a Clear Idea of What to Automate

If you believe that 100% automation is possible, you are dreaming. You can’t automate each and every single test case. Some tests will be difficult to automate due to technology constraints. Specifically, in areas such as compatibility, user interface, or recovery, most of the testing needs to be done manually. For example, some testing frameworks will not support test cases that run across several browser sessions or different devices. Therefore, before you start thinking about automation, you have to come up with a list of criteria that test cases must fulfil in order to be automatized.

The ROI on automated tests varies depending on several factors. Thus, you have to decide which test cases are critical and need to be given a high priority when automating. Normally, it’s the areas that are

  • exposed to risk,
  • of importance to clients,
  • or feature complex business logic.

Recognize these application areas and test case specifications to ensure that your automation efforts payback.

It’s a good idea to automate test cases that run in different environments, with different sets of data or large volumes of data. In contrast, you shouldn’t try to automate test cases that needed to be run once or twice like test cases for a rarely used feature. 

2. Difficulties in Picking up the Right Automation Tool

This is a major challenge most development companies go through when introducing automated testing. Test automation requires tools and development teams to find it difficult to choose the right tool for various reasons, as listed below.

  • Testers are lacking the necessary skills to make the most out of a particular automation tool.
  • Selected tools are not offering 100% test coverage.
  • The cost of automation tools exceeding the test budget.
  • Not knowing if the tool they need exists.

Various steps can be followed in order to mitigate these issues. For instance, if your testers don’t know how to use a specific automation tool effectively, you can arrange a training session with its provider, prepare an online course for them, or recruit a consultant who can help your testers to master it. If you’re still searching for the right automation tool, reach out to the testing community.  Forums like Stack Exchange are a valuable source of information.

Among numerous automated testing tools available in the market today, Testup is a new player that stands out of all the rest due to its excellent and unique features. It enables easy setup for users with a high focus on usability and supports complex test scenarios to boost your software quality. 

Testup covers all the essential use cases such as Front-end testing, End-to-End testing, CI/CD, Test-driven development (TDD), Robotic Process Automation(RPA) and many more. Codeless test automation is one most impressive features of Testup that saves enormous time for developers. In the future, Testup is likely to address most of the challenges organizations face when trying to adapt to automated testing.

3. Lack of Communication and Collaboration within the Team

Automated testing usually requires more communication and collaboration between team members than manual testing. You cannot run a successful testing process if the team fails to get involved adequately in setting automation targets and goals. Therefore, the team members need to be actively involved there.

Automation depends on historical test data, experience, and sometimes even proof of concept that can be obtained only through your team. Thus, the entire team should stay on the same page for automated testing to work properly.

Furthermore, you need to gain solid team management support on hand before you start with automated testing. It is also important to build a collaborative working environment where team members can communicate with each other regularly to deliver test results timely with minimum risk.

4. Difficulties in Choosing a Testing Approach

This is another most significant challenge automation engineers face when trying to go ahead with automated testing. They need to find out the right test automation approach to suit their needs. For that, they may need to ask the following questions from themselves:

  • How can we reduce the implementation and maintenance cost of test suites?
  • Will the selected automation tool be able to generate useful test reports?
  • Will these test suites last a long period of time at our company?

The above points are highly important when it comes to an agile development environment where the testing application constantly changes, and test automation should be implemented to identify these changes, helping the team stick into a cost-effective maintenance strategy. Therefore, you should consider embracing an automation solution that automatically detects these changes and updates or re-validates the test.

5. High Upfront Costs

Test automation will involve high costs at its initial phase. These costs associated with setting up a test automation suite hold back many companies from incorporating automated testing into their development process.

Therefore, make sure to analyze and create a test automation framework including elements like libraries of reusable functions before proposing the automation suite to the management. You need to add hardware costs as well as software costs, including licensing costs if you intend to use paid software. Even if you pick an open-source solution, you still have to consider some costs, such as maintaining and providing training. 

Convincing the management that test automation is worth all the effort might be a difficult task. However, the potential ROI is a clever argument there, so prepare an automation strategy along with a complete budget and go for it.

6. Not Having Skilled Resources for Automation

In automated testing, the teams have to design and maintain the necessary test automation frameworks, along with test scripts, build solutions, and many other vital elements. Therefore, the teams need to have a solid understanding of the design and implementation of the automated testing framework to work as expected. That’s the reason why you should build your team with testing resources who possess strong programming skills and test automation skills.

However, with Testup, organizations can eliminate the demand for skilled resources in automated testing since it is a no-code automation tool.

7. Understanding the Prospects of Stakeholders and End-Users

It doesn’t matter how perfect your testing tools or resources are – you have to always bear in mind that testing can’t be conducted in a vacuum. It serves a specific objective which is basically improving your software product.

While automated testing is a great option for automatically checking your software for bugs, humans still need to carry out non-automated testing scenarios. These tests return plenty of useful information to make optimal decisions for improving the system, not in the view of developers but the end-users.

Because of that, it’s important to make sure that the management, your testing team, and other stakeholders all understand and accept the expected results of your test automation strategy before implementing it.

Bottom Line

While test automation can bring plenty of benefits to testing teams and organizations, it can be difficult to implement due to various issues and constraints. Anyway, if you identify the challenges involved in introducing automated testing and prepare well for them, your organization can reap the benefits of it.

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Why did Automated Testing Disappoint so many Companies?


To guarantee the quality of products, it is important that product development companies embrace testing. That’s not all, the way this test happens is also crucial. Over the years, manual testing has proven to be an approach laden with so many cons than pros. A way forward out of this is test automation. With test automation, companies have an incredible opportunity to increase the efficiency and coverage of software and product testing. Among many other benefits, test automation reduces time, gets rid of human error, reduces expenses, and provides better insights for product improvement.

However, just like every technological solution, test automation comes with its complexities. Therefore, if not implemented properly, it can bring disappointment. In this article, we will explore the possible reasons why test automation may fail you and thereafter provide a viable solution that you can leverage on, moving forward.

Test Automation Failed You: Why?

Setting unrealistic Expectations

Expecting 100% automation is practically impossible. Therefore, the beginning of the failure of test automation is when a team sets their expectations so high that they cannot be achieved. As much as possible, expectations should be realistic. This fundamental axiom also applies to test automation.

Use of a Poor Test Automation Tool

If we start counting the number of test automation tools available today, we will lose count. The market is flooded with too many tools than you can imagine. For this reason, it becomes difficult to separate the quality ones from the noisemakers. However, while it may be difficult, it is not impossible. The most important factor to consider when choosing a test automation tool is your testing needs and primary goals. The reality is that every tool has its unique capabilities and your team needs to focus on finding the one that effectively aligns with your needs and requirements. Generally, we recommend Testup as a viable and affordable no-code test automation tool. Later in this piece, we will highlight the reasons why you may want to consider using Testup.

Disregard for Parallel Execution

One reason why some companies fail at test automation is that they get themselves caught in complex test suites that take forever to execute. In such a situation, test cases that are on queue end abruptly after timeout. Ultimately, the quality of the test gets compromised. In a nutshell, what this implies is that sequential execution of test cases offers nothing but a fast way to fail at test automation. A proven strategy is to embrace parallel execution as this allows multiple tests at the same time.

Buggy Test Environment

It’s often said that proper prior planning prevents poor performance. Every action in this world requires proper planning. This is even truer when it comes to test environments. If what you have is a buggy test environment, that’s already a turn-off for your test operations and a disappointment is inevitable. Therefore, you need to test on a staging environment to ensure that your code works perfectly well before proceeding to the production pipeline.

Ignoring Important Test Reports and Metrics

It’s surprising that some developers are willing to carry out a test on their product but are too much in a hurry to pay attention to critical test reports. Your guess is as good as ours, a failure of the test automation is imminent in such a scenario. Why carry out a test in the first place if the test reports will eventually get ignored? The best approach is to critically examine test reports to analyse possible faults and errors that lead to test failures. By doing this, you can address such errors and faults and make the test better on the next try. After all, the beauty of failure is the opportunity it offers you to make necessary improvement. Beyond getting a successful test result, a critical analysis of your test reports and metrics also helps you and your team to save time and resources.

Web Elements with Undefined IDs

With a non-computer vision approach to testing, it is compulsory for developers to assign IDs to web elements. Not doing this is a recipe for test failure because it becomes problematic for automated scripts to find the web elements on time. Therefore, to make sure that there is a seamless synchronization of the script, you need to assign IDs to web elements. A better way, however, is to use a test tool with computer vision and which requires no interaction with developers.

Inadequate Understanding of Test Procedure

When the testing tool being used requires human interaction, then, it becomes important for the tester to have a thorough understanding of the test procedure. Otherwise, failure is assured. When this happens, it is even costlier for companies. This is the reason why it is crucial for institutions to assign test automation to those who know how to implement it. Another issue is the inability to identify when test automation is necessary. Fortunately, there are test tools that require little or no human interaction these days especially with the success of codeless test automation tools like Testup and others.

Selecting the Best Test Automation Tool

As stated earlier, we recommend Testup as a robust test automation tool to choose for testing your product or software. Why Testup?

Succinctly put, Testup offers a brand new, computer-vision and codeless testing approach that mimics human actions. As a result, end-to-end tests become easy to maintain and highly understandable. Most test automation tools use a non-computer vision approach which means they require human interaction before they can be effectively used.

Also, code-based testing approaches like Selenium Python requires a developer to create and run the test; this in itself defeats the existence of test-automation in the first place. In addition, the approach is very expensive. Testup solves this challenge as it leverages a no-code approach to test automation.

What’s more? Unlike many test tools, Testup’s visual approach creates an easy to understand, easy to debug and easy to maintain series of actions with clear images.


As you have read in this article, there are great possibilities to fail at test automation if things are not done properly. As we have listed a few reasons why companies get disappointed, we have recommended a viable solution to avoid all possible pitfalls and enjoy the sumptuous benefits of test automation. To get started, check out Testup!